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In the majority of LSC facilities, the scintillation solvent is benzene (C), before being catalytically trimerised to benzene.

Benzene synthesis procedures vary considerably in different laboratories.

(1991) concluded that, for spectrometers using true anticoincidence detection and extensive passive shielding (as in the Perkin Elmer 1220 Quantulus), Teflon or synthetic silica vials produced the highest performance in terms of C detection efficiency and background.

The authors also noted that synthetic silica had superior physical properties to Teflon.

Ionising events may occur in either PMT due to interactions between the molecules of the tube material and surrounding radiation.

Butterfield and Polach (1983) and Gupta and Polach (1985) have described methods used to reduce optical cross talk in LS counters, both by optimising and refining electronic circuitry to enable differentiation between sample and non-sample events and by masking areas in the counting chamber to reduce reflection.

The lithium carbide is cooled and then hydrolysed to acetylene gas (Li The acetylene is purified by passing through a phosphoric acid trap to remove ammonia compounds, and again, dry ice traps to remove water vapour.The silica vials vary in size according to the weight of the sample benzene being counted, including 0.3 ml and 1 ml minivials, 3 ml standard vials and 12 ml vials, suitable for high precision applications.Low-K glass vials are supplied in either 7 ml or 20 ml sizes.The synthesised benzene is transferred into counting vials of a variety of types.The counting vials contain the sample solvent and the scintillator.

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The essential electronic components of the Liquid Scintillation (LS) Spectrometer according to Gupta and Polach (1985), are photo multiplier tubes (PMTs), high voltage supply, signal preamplifiers, pulse and summing amplifiers, coincidence logic, timer and scaler (Gupta and Polach, 19).

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