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The Hart-Cellar Act abolished the national origins quota system but still maintained was the principle of numerical restriction by establishing 170,000 Hemispheric and 20,000 per country ceilings and a seven-category preference system (favoring close relatives of U. citizens and permanent resident aliens, those with needed occupational skills, and refugees) for the Eastern Hemisphere and a separate 120,000 ceiling for the Western Hemisphere.
The 20,000 per-country immigration ceilings and the preference system became applied to Western-Hemisphere countries. 1978—The separate ceilings for Eastern and Western Hemispheric immigration were combined into one world-wide limit of 290,000.
The trial competence of the dicasteries rested on the principle, first introduced within certain limits by Solon and made universal after the establishment of full democracy, that the citizenry in its totality should judge the affairs of its members.
The dicasts were selected by lot, every citizen over 30 years old being eligible.
The Chinese exclusion law curbed Chinese immigration.
Also excluded were persons convicted of political offenses, lunatics, idiots, and persons likely to become public charges. A bill increased the head tax on immigrants, and added people with physical or mental defects or tuberculosis and children unaccompanied by parents to the exclusion list.
In rare cases of great political importance, the whole Areopagus, a body composed of former archons.
Contrary to views held by scholars until recently, new research has shown that the Athenian dicasts who sat in judgment did not feel free to base their verdicts on vague notions of equity but adhered, at least in theory, to the literal meaning of the written statutes (), which they were bound by a solemn oath to observe.
A number of enactments rightly or wrongly attributed to Solon still are known from literary quotations rendering them in a modified form that reflects a legislative reform of 403–402 The third determining factor for Greek law was the absence of a body of jurisprudence comparable to that of the Romans.
Even the Attic orators, for all their practical familiarity with the laws of the city, were mainly interested in presenting arguments suited to persuade the mass juries before whom they had to argue, not in analyzing the legal system with the object of obtaining a deeper insight into its implications.
The act created a uniform rule of naturalization and a residency requirement for new citizenship applicants.
The law required immigrants to live in the United States for two years and their respective state of residence for one year prior to applying for citizenship.