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In the acute exacerbation of CRS, the diagnostic criteria and treatments similar to those used for ARS should be used. Takeushi K, Majima Y, Shimizu T, Ukai K, Sakakura Y. "Cough", although considered an important symptom according to most international guidelines, is not one of the cardinal symptoms in this document. Analysis of HLA antigens in Japanese patients with chronic sinusitis. It is estimated that a small percentage of post-acute viral RS (around 0.5% to 2% of cases) develop into a bacterial infection. Regardless of duration, the presence of at least three of the signs/symptoms below may suggest ABRS: Anatomical factors Anatomical variations including Haller cells, concha bullosa, nasal septal deviation, choanal atresia, pharyngeal tonsil hypertrophy, nasal polyps, hypoplastic sinuses, and odontogenic origin of infections may be associated with ARS. Wang X, Moylan B, Leopold DA, Kim J, Rubenstein RC, Togias A, et al. PCD is associated with chronic upper airway symptoms such as rhinorrhea, episodic facial pain, anosmia, and bronchiectasis.
It may occur one or more times in a given period of time, but always with complete remission of signs and symptoms between episodes.
It includes the loss of cilia and ciliated cells, as well as alteration of the normal mucociliary transport. Mutation in the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis and predisposition to chronic rhinosinusitis in the general population.
However, smoking and allergies have also been implicated in the alteration of the mucociliary transport, Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) This is a rare autosomal recessive disease, in which the cilia are either immotile or beat with a pattern incompatible with mucus transport in the airway. Increased prevalence of chronic rhinosinusitis in carriers of a cystic fibrosis mutation.
The few studies on the frequency of these symptoms in ARS in the community have shown great variability.
ARS symptoms have a characteristically abrupt onset, without a recent history of RS symptoms. Luxemberger W, Posch U, Berghold A, Hoffmann T, Lang-Loidolt D.
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Although VAS has only been validated for CRS in adults, the European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps (EPOS) 20121 also recommends its use in ARS. Lee RJ, Xiong G, Kofonow JM, Chen B, Lysenko A, Juang P, et al. Association between the functional polymorphism C-159T in the CD14 promoter gene and nasal polyposis: potential role in asthma.